Rabu, 16 November 2011

DIRECT AND REPORTED SPEECH (Ucapan langsung & laporan)

Al Faqih Warsono

A. DIRECT SPEECH

Direct speech adalah ucapan langsung yang diucapkan oleh orang yang bersangkutan dalam situasi yang sebenarnya. Dalam teks berbentuk Narrative umumnya banyak menggunakan ucapan jenis ini. Perhatikan cuplikan cerita diambil dari  


Then he told the terrified fox to make the division. The fox accumulated all that they had killed into one large heap and left to himself the smallest possible share. The rest he requested the lion to have.

"Who has taught you, my dear fellow, the art of division? You are perfect to a fraction," said the lion, pleased as punch.

"I learned it from the ass sir, by witnessing his fate," replied the fox. He made up his mind never to take a lion as partner in any future venture

Ungkapan yang di cetak tebal itu adalah contoh dari direct speech.
Kata kerja (verbs) yang digunakan biasanya: ask (meminta/bertanya), exclaim  (menyeru), suggest (menyarankan), reply (menjawab), cry (menangis), reflect  (mencerminkan), suppose (menganggap), grunt (mendengkur), snarl (menggertak), hiss (mendesah), whisper (berbisik).

B. REPORTED SPEECH

Reported speech adalah merupakan indirect speech (ucapan tidak langsung). Reported speech adalah ucapan yang secara tidak labgsung diucapkan oleh yang bersangkutan, sehingga disampaikan oleh orang lain dalam situasi yang berbeda dengan situasi yang sebenarnya. Wartawan, misalnya, melaporkan hasil pembicaraan oirang dengan menggunakan kata-katanya sendiri, tetapi tetap isinya sama dengan yang diucapkan oleh yang bersangkutan.  Kita membicarakan ide yang diungkapkan tanpa mengutip kata-kata yang diucapkannya, tetapi dengan menggunakan susunan kalimat/ucapan sendiri. Biasanya menggunakan kata "that" dalam kalimat pernyataan, "wheter" dalam kalimat interrogative, kata tanya dalam kalimat tanya. Untuk lebih jelas perhatikan contoh penggalan cerita yang dikutip dari



Ten-year-old Preeti looked at the computer screen. She had received an email from the editor of the site Natkhat informing her that her story had been accepted for publication. The editor wanted to create Preeti's home page and had sent her a questionnaire asking her to list out her favourite things.

Ungkapan yang di cetak tebal itu adalah contoh dari reported speech.




Ucapan tidak langsung tersebut sebenarnya berasal dari ucapan langsung sebuah e-mail yang ditulis oleh editor. Yaitu : She had received an email from the editor of the site Natkhat . It sid, "Preeti, your story has been accepted for publication." "We want   to create your home page and we have sent you a questioraire  asking you to list out your favorite things".

Bandingkan:
- He said, "I'm going home"
-He said (that) he was going home.

-Mum says, "Why aren't you at school?"
-Mum wants to know why you aren't at school.

-He said, "I love you"
-He said (that) he loved me.

- Peter said, "Why don't we phone him now?"
-Peter suggested phoning him straight away, atau
- Peter asked me why we didn't phone him at that time, atau
- Peter wanted to know why we didn't phone him at that time.


C. CARA MENYUSUN REPORTED SPEECH BERDSARKAN DIRECT SPEECH.




Direct Speech
Reported Speech
Ato: I like melons
Ato told me, “I like melons”
He said he liked melons
Ato told me that he liked melons
Ato: Is it raining?


Ato told me, “I’m waiting for you”
He asked if it was raining
Ato wanted to know whether it was raining
Ato told me that he was waiting for me.
Hani: I didn’t recognize you

Hani whispered me, “Budi was interested in your speech”
She explained that she hadn’t recognized me
Hani whispered me that Budi had been interested in my speech.
I told Hani: You’ve annoyed the dog
I told her that she’d annoyed the dog
Joy: I was joking about the price
He said he was joking about the price
He said he had been joking about the price
You: I hadn’t seen her before that day
You said you hadn’t seen her before that day
I : We’ll be late
I was afraid we’d be late
Ita: I can swim
Ita and Aji: It may rain
She thought she could swim
They said  it might rain
I told Aji: You could be right
I felt he could be right
He said, “I might come”
He said that he might come
Ita: That should be interesting
Ita said it should be interesting
Aji: I must go
Aji said he must go

Catatan:
Jika dalam Reported speech, kata kerja (verb) nya menggunakan present (kini), future (yang akan datang), present perfect (kini telah sempurna), maka verb (kata kerja) juga sama dalam direct speech.

- Will I be in time?
- She wants to know if she will be in time.

- Was your operation successful?
- He’ll certainly ask you if your operation was successful

- I don’t want to go
- I’ve already told you that I don’t want to go

Jika yang dilaporkan ternyata masih berlaku sampai sekarang, maka bentuk present tetap berlaku, misalnya:
- The earth goes round the sun
- Galileo proved that the earth goes round the sun.

- I’m only 28 years.
- She told me the other day that she’s only 28 years.

REPORTED QUESTIONS
Auxiliary verbs (kata kerja bantu) dan tanda tanya yang digunakan dalam kalimat tanya, tidak digunakan dalam reported questions.
-How do you feel?
- The nurse asked how I felt

-Why is your mother driving so fast?
- I wondered why my mother was driving so fast.

-Where are all the people living?
- Jane couldn't understand where all the people were living.

"IF" atau "WHETHER" digunakan untuk kalimat tanya yang tidak menggunakan kata tanya (interrogative).
- Do you want the town center
- The bus driver asked if / whether I wanted the town center

-Can you help me?
- I don't know if / whether I can help you.

Kata yang iasa digunakan dalam kalimat direct tapi tidak pada reported adalah:
-She said, "Do you want me to help you"
- She asked if I wanted her to help me.

Dalam kalimat : orders, requests, advice & suggestions, reported speech-nya menggunakan invinitive.
-I told Andi to be careful crossing the glacier.
-The old lady has asked us to be quiet after mid night
- The accountants advice us to raise prices by 8 %

Dalam kalimat negative , requests, reported speech-nya menggunakan negative infinitive
-Margaret told me not to worry. (Margaret memberi tahu saya untuk tidak hawatir)

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